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The scenario subset selection transformation ( T 2 ) involves determining which values of f ( x i ,  S ) to use in the robustness metric calculation ( T 3 ) (i.e., f ( x i ,  S ) ⊆  f ( x i ,  S )), which is akin to selecting a subset of the available scenarios over which system performance is to be assessed. This reflects a particular degree of risk aversion, where consideration of more extreme scenarios in the calculation of a robustness metric corresponds to a higher degree of risk aversion and vice versa. As can be seen from Table 1 , which scenarios are considered in the robustness calculation is highly variable between different metrics.

The third transformation ( T 3 ) involves the calculation of the actual robustness metric based on transformed system performance values ( T 1 ) for the selected scenarios ( T 2 ), which corresponds to the transformation of f ( x i ,  S ) to a single robustness value, R ( x i ,  S ). This equates to an identity transform in cases where only a single scenario is selected in T 2 , as there is only a single transformed performance value, which automatically becomes the robustness value. However, in cases where there are transformed performance values for multiple scenarios, these have to be transformed into a single value by means of calculating statistical moments of these values, such as the mean, standard deviation, skewness or kurtosis.

In this section, a taxonomy of different robustness metrics is given in accordance with the three transformations introduced in Section 2 . A summary of the three transformations, as well as the relative level of risk aversion, is provided in Section Mens Dobby Check Casual Shirt Ben Sherman Best Store To Get Online lhk866Ua

A categorization of different robustness metrics in accordance with the performance value transformation ( T 1 ) is given in Table 2 . As can be seen, the categorization is based on (1) whether calculation of a robustness metric is based on the absolute performance of a particular decision alternative or the performance of a decision alternative relative to that of another decision alternative or a benchmark; and (2) whether a robustness metric provides an indication of actual system performance or whether system performance is satisfactory compared with a pre‐specified performance threshold.

Many of the classic decision analytic robustness metrics belong to the bottom‐right hand quadrant of Table 2 , including the maximax and maximin criteria, Hurwicz's optimism‐pessimism rule and Laplace's principle of insufficient reason, as well as well more recently developed metrics such as the mean‐variance criterion, percentile based skewness and percentile‐based peakedness. These metrics utilize information about the absolute performance (e.g., cost, reliability) of a particular decision alternative in a particular scenario. Consequently, values of f ( x i ,  S ) consist of these performance values, and robust decision alternatives are those that maximize system performance across the scenarios. The difference between these metrics is which values of the distribution of performance values over the different scenarios f ( x i ,  S ) they use in the robustness calculation (i.e., scenario subset selection ( T 2 )) and how these values are combined into a single value of R (i.e., robustness metric calculation ( T 3 )), as discussed in Sections 3.2 and 3.3 .

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A few months ago, the Indian government withdrew 86% of banknotes in circulation. Ostensibly, it was to cut down on the black market economy and tax cheats, but it also wiped out a large percentage of the wealth of the Isabel Floating Corded Lace Satin And Point Desprit Thong Charcoal Stella McCartney Outlet Best Sale Sale Browse Sale Classic hhWFiwV
, who hold their wealth in cash. A few weeks later, Venezuela followed with a similar measure .

This got me thinking, to what degree do people control their own wealth today, and should they have more control?

Who controlsmoney?

For most of human history, individuals had very little control of their own wealth. Warring tribes raided villages and all-powerful kings and emperors could seize your property on a whim. If you worked hard and managed to accumulate some wealth, it wasn’t entirely clear that you would be able to keep it, so most people were content to keep their head down, eke out a meager existence, and not draw too much attention.

But something important happened in the 17th century as With Credit Card Cheap Online Womens Miss Joy Boy Short Passionata Discount Popular eif33Xs7v
were established. In the Second Treatise on Civil Government (1689) John Locke wrote:

This began a shift in society, where people could keep more of the proceeds from their work. It also meant that your position (class, caste, etc) was not set at birth. With hard work, you could be self made, and create a better life for yourself and your children.

With upward mobility becoming possible, people began creating new products and services, hoping to strike it rich. Innovation began to accelerate, which improved life for everyone, rich and poor. In some cultures, it eventually became more favorable to be viewed as self made versus being born into wealth — a stark contrast from the age of kings and emperors.

Paul Graham writes that, “a great deal has been written about the causes of the Industrial Revolution. But surely a necessary, if not sufficient, condition was that people who made fortunes be able to enjoy them in peace.”

Not only did letting people control their own wealth accelerate innovation, it also attracted the best and brightest to certain countries. In the United States, for example, 51% of billion dollar tech startups are started by immigrants .

Unfortunately, this idea has not taken hold everywhere in the world. India seizing bank notes is just one small example. Here are some recent examples from around the world:

It’s unfair to characterize governments as the only way to lose control of wealth. Seizing funds or hyperinflation are a major problem, but wealth can also be taken by companies or stolen by individuals. We must look holistically at how much control people have of wealth to think about how to increase it.

What happens when people have more control of theirwealth?

A lot has been written on this topic, but here is my take on the pros and cons of people having more control of their wealth.



The question here is whether the economic growth from people working harder, more ideas being tried, and attracting the best talent outweighs the downside of income inequality, increased volatility, and enabling bad folks along with the good.

Digital currency as a way to give people more control ofwealth

I do think digital currency represents an unprecedented opportunity to increase people’s control of their own wealth in the world. But there are pros and cons to this approach.



With each of these cons there is cause for optimism when you look at how they are changing over time.


Governments exist to serve their citizens. One could argue that the Indian government recalling bank notes had a positive impact on citizens (more tax revenue for education, roads, etc). Yet it also harmed millions by eroding their wealth. This delicate balance of power between individuals and governments has been in flux throughout history, and it’s helpful to have some checks in place to ensure it doesn’t get too far out of alignment.

Digital currency can be one of those checks, because it provides an opportunity for people all over the world to gain more control of their money. With universal access to smartphones, it will likely spread rapidly to every country in the world. This increase in control for individuals will probably stimulate a great deal of economic growth, and improve the human condition. But it will also introduce some uncomfortable changes into society and has a long way to go, improving security, volatility, and usability, to be compelling to a more mainstream audience. If digital currency can overcome these challenges (and I think it can), it will establish controlling your own wealth as a basic human right for anyone in the world.

People work harder
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ARLINGTON, TX - AUGUST 30: A Florida State Seminoles cheerleader runs a flag on the field before a game against the Oklahoma State Cowboys at ATT Stadium on August 30, 2014 in Arlington, Texas. (Photo by Ronald Martinez/Getty Images)

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FSU football kept their record-setting bowl streak alive last year and defeated Southern Mississippi in the Independence Bowl.

It wasn’t the bowl any FSU football fan would have projected them to be playing in prior to the season. However, injuries and a tough schedule couple with coaching staff with one foot out the door took its toll.


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Preseason projections are not as high on the Noles with a new coaching staff and uncertainties at the quarterback position.

Many of the issues identified in this literature are likely to be similar for Travellers. However to develop interventions that are tailored to the needs of diverse Traveller communities, further research with these communities is required. To date, a small number of studies 13–17 have explored the barriers to immunisation uptake specifically in Traveller communities. These identify multiple issues reflecting the difficulties experienced by marginalised, socially excluded communities. 1–6 However, these studies tend to be small and focused on one community. While Traveller communities may share similar features of lifestyle that distinguish them from the general population, they have different beliefs and cultural traditions. 31 It is therefore important to understand whether and how specific communities differ in the factors that promote or inhibit immunisation. Second, immunisation is often only one small part of a study exploring several health issues with Travellers. This limits the extent to which the complex nature of barriers and facilitators to immunisation is explored. For example, barriers may be specific to particular vaccines, for example, measles, mumps rubella (MMR) vaccine, or differ for adult and childhood vaccines. Third, most studies were conducted in the 1980s/1990s, so do not consider issues associated with the introduction of new vaccines in the UK childhood immunisation schedule (eg, Rotavirus in July 2013 DENIM Denim trousers Department 5 Visit Cheap Price For Sale Top Quality Buy Cheap Footlocker Finishline Clearance Lowest Price Really Sale Online mBFyeeRCh
), evolving views about previously controversial vaccines (eg, pertussis, MMR) or the views of more recent migrant communities in the UK, for example, Romanian Roma. Finally, we have found no studies on immunisation uptake in adults living in Traveller communities.

The effectiveness of interventions to increase immunisation uptake among children 33 and adults 34 , 35 has also been reviewed and there are many examples of innovative health and social care provision aimed at improving the health of Travellers. 1 , The Jodi Crop sateen jeans AG Adriano Goldschmied From China Cheap Best Prices JFoddK
, 36 Some target immunisation specifically (eg, outreach immunisation programmes, tailored health promotion resources), whereas others are generic yet relevant to immunisation (hand-held patient records, specialist health visitors 1 and cultural competence training of health professionals Discount Reliable Mens Business HRpant Trunk Huber Sale Very Cheap W4GG3
). These interventions are rarely rigorously evaluated, so it is unclear which are feasible, acceptable and (cost) effective, in which communities they work and how they may (not) work. Finally, existing interventions are rarely informed by theoretical frameworks which can increase effectiveness by aiding understanding of the likely mechanisms of change. W118 By Walter Baker Woman Coldshoulder Striped Cottonpoplin Wrap Top Sky Blue Size M W118 by Walter Baker Largest Supplier Fast Delivery 2018 New hd7HZb99
Our research will advance understanding by addressing the limitations of previous research. The aims and objectives are as follows.

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